The state of Punjab has been developed at a very fast pace after independence and is referred to as the "Granary of India". It is divided into 20 districts for the convenience of administration, Amritsar, Bhatinda, Faridkot, Fatehgarh, Ferozepur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Mansa, Moga, Muktsar, Nawanshahr, Patiala, Ropar, Mohali, Tarntaran, Sangrur and Barnala. The Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh heads the present Punjab government. Shri V.P. Singh Badnore is the ceremonial head of the state, who is the Governor of Punjab. Several portfolios of the ministers of Punjab government are as follows:
The political parties of Punjab are classified into two types: National Parties and State Parties. National parties are political parties which participate in the electoral polls all over India like Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India, Bahujan Samaj Party, Samajwadi Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist) etc. The national parties have a strong presence on the political scenario of Punjab. State parties or regional parties take part in the various polls but only in one state.
Some of the national parties in Punjab are as follows:
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was established by Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee. The party has been ruling the states of Gujarat, Jharkand, Goa, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, and Haryana.
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) has been constituted by Kanshi Ram in 1984. BSP has made its presence in the political scenario of India, because its objective was to safeguard the rights of Dalit people.
Communist Party of India: On 26 December 1925, Communist Party of India was formed by a handful of young patriots. It differs from the CPM on ideologies and has made a strong presence in the states of West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura.
Communist Party of India (Marxist) was established after splitting from the Communist Party of India in 1964. The Party follows the philosophies and ideologies of Marxism-Leninism.
Indian National Congress is commonly known as the Congress Party is the oldest and the largest political party in India. It was founded in 1885 and it played a vital role in the Indian struggle of independence. Great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Rajiv Gandhi etc. have been associated with the party.
The Punjab state political parties or regional parties contest in different elections within a particular state. Few state political parties in Punjab are Shiromani Akali Dal and Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann). These political parties try to represent the problems of Punjab and work for the enrichment of the culture and language.
The administration system has 3 levels: village, block and district. Panchayats operate at the village level. The Panchayats of Punjab are the local bodies working for the welfare of the village. It constitutes of members ranging from 7 to 31. However, it can have more than 31 members but not less than 7. Panchayat is a form of Indian political system which combines five neighbouring villages known as panch. The primary units of administration in Panchayats are the gram panchayats.
The members of the Panchayat are known as "panches", who take decisions regarding the disputes among the villagers and villages. According to the Indian Constitution, Panchayats have the authority to work as organizations of self-government. Panchayats play a vital role in the administration of the rural areas of Punjab. Panchayats have been vested with certain powers and responsibilities:
Apart from these responsibilities, the government of Punjab is also planning to strengthen facilities relating to health, education, drinking water, sewage, the telephone service, banking services and power supply through the panchayats. The income from market committees and cattle fairs are one of the sources of income of the panchayats, which has been based on the pattern of West Bengal, Kerala and Karnataka.
Punjab is located in the northern part of India. The economy of the region is chiefly agrarian with very few industries. The economy of Punjab is one of the most developed among the states of India. The state has 1, 94,000 small scale industrial units and 586 large and medium units. To look after the requirements of the people and the industrial units the Punjab, government has established different boards and commissions. There a number of Punjab Boards and Commissions which provide important advisory, regulatory, policy-making services to the Government of Punjab.
The various Punjab Boards are:
Punjab Infrastructure Development Board (PIDB) is engaged in strengthening the infrastructure of Punjab.
Punjab State Agricultural Marketing Board was formed on 26 May 1961. The objective of the board is to ensure the proper operation and supervision of the marketing network of sale, purchase, storage and processing of various processed or non processed agricultural products.
The Punjab State Board of Technical Education and Industrial Training (PSBTE & IT) is an independent statutory body formed under the Punjab State Board of Technical Education & Industrial Training 1992 Act. Its objective is to ensure high standard of education by controlling the academic standards in Technical Education Institutes of Punjab.
The Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) is a statutory organization established on 01.02.1959. The electricity board has been providing service to more than 60 lakh consumers
The various Punjab Commissions are:
The Punjab State Electricity Regulatory Commission (PSERC) has been formed by the Government of Punjab. It decides the tariff for the electricity used by the various customers under the category of wholesale, bulk, grid or retail.
The State Information Commission, Punjab was formed on 11 October 2005.
Municipal Administration of Punjab looks after the developmental and administrative activities of the different cities and districts of Punjab. It has been delivering its duties diligently. It supervises and administers the urban areas of the state. The various responsibilities of the Municipal Administration are as follows:
Apart from these, Municipal Administration deals with some other responsibilities like education, health, community and recreational services.
The main sources of income of the Municipal Administration of Punjab are:
The Government of Punjab through Directorate of Municipal Administration administers the operation of the municipalities. The Directorate supervises the duties of the municipalities, and plans appropriate human resource policies.
The state of Punjab has a developing economy. It has the highest average growth rate of 10% among the states of India. There are a number of departments and institutions in the Punjab Government. These departments and institutions look after the different sections which form an important aspect of the administration of the state. Under the leadership of the Chief Minister and the Governor, they work efficiently towards the service of the people and the development of the state.
The various Punjab Government Departments are as follows:
The various training and educational institutes of Punjab are as follows: