Geography and History of Mizoram

To know about the northern state of Mizoram, a basic idea on the Geography and History of Mizoram is very essential. Mizoram history goes back to the 16th century when the Mizo Tribes crossed the Chinese border to settle in erstwhile Shan state. During the 18th and 19th century, the area witnessed numerous tribal wars and in 1898, the region came under the British rule.

Mizoram's first political party was the Mizo Common People's Union, which was formed in 1946. After the Indian independence of 1947, the Bordoloi Committee was set up to advice on the tribal affairs of the north east. In 1952, the Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council was formed. However a demand for a separate state was raised and in 1955, a new political outfit - the Eastern Indian Union was founded. After many years of protests, Mizoram was recognized as a full fledged state of the country in 1987.

Mizoram geography includes the climate of the area, the flora and fauna of the state, the lakes, rivers and the general topography of the region. The state is blessed with many natural resources. Adorned with lush green mountains and free flowing rivers, Mizoram takes a paradisaical look. The region receives heavy rainfall and enjoys a very pleasing climate throughout the year. The presence of some major rivers like Tlau, Tlawng, Tuirini, Serlui and Mat and some picturesque lakes is also a highpoint of Mizoram's geography.

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Climate of Mizoram

The general climate of Mizoram is one of the most pleasing one in the country. With moderate temperatures throughout the year, the Mizoram climate is loved by the tourists and visitors.

The summers are not very hot as the temperature remains between 20° to 30° Centigrade. The winters are very pleasing and cool with temperatures ranging from 21° to 11° Centigrade. Mizoram witnesses heavy rainfall in all parts of the state during the rainy season. Monsoon starts from June and lasts till the month of August. An annual average rainfall of 3000 millimeters is recorded in the state. During the months of March to April, heavy storms occur in most parts of the state.

A report of a normal day during the summer will give a rough idea of the usual weather of Mizoram.

Topography of Mizoram

The topography of Mizoram is not very different from its other north eastern neighbors. Mizoram topography is conspicuous with the presence of hills and mountain ranges. The tall green hills are moated with free flowing rivers. The eastern side of the state is situated at a higher altitude than the western side of the state.

The average height of the Mizoram hills is approximately 900 meters. The tallest among the hills is the Phawngpui - Blue Mountain with a height of 2210 Meters. The picturesque valleys and flat lands of Cachar, Mat, Champhai, Chamdur and Tlabung are blessed with very fertile soil and natural resources suitable for excellent agricultural and horticultural productions.

The geographical location of Mizoram lies between East longitude 92°15' to 93°29' and North Latitude 21°58' to 24°35'. Covering a total area of 21,087 square kilometers, the state is blessed with rich forest resources and beautiful lakes.

Rivers of Mizoram

The rivers of Mizoram constitute a major part of the topography of Mizoram. Aided by heavy rainfall during the rainy seasons and occasional rainfall throughout the year, most of the Mizoram rivers are perennial in nature.

Some of the rivers flowing through Mizoram are:

The northern part of the state comprises of some important rivers like the Tlawng or Dhaleshwari, Tuirial or Sonai and some other rivers. Rivers like Mat, Tyao, Tuichang, and Tuipui fall in the southern part of Mizoram. The rivers of Mizoram are the main source of water for the people of the state. The perennial rivers of the state feed the lush green vegetation of Mizoram.

Lakes of Mizoram

The picturesque Lakes of Mizoram have emerged as popular tourism destinations of the state. Mizoram's lakes are the venues of a lot of activities like boating, fishing, camping and trekking. Some of the important lakes in Mizoram are:

The Tamdil Lake has an interesting legend attached with its creation. Situated in Aizwal district, the Tamdil Lake is 110 kilometers away from the capital city. One of the most beautiful lakes of the state of Mizoram, the Palak Lake lies in the Lakher region. The oval shaped lake is bordered with stretches of deciduous and tropical evergreen forests. The lake is visited by numerous migratory birds making the place a haven for the bird watchers. The Rendil Lake is an artificial lake in Aizawl. It has emerged as one of the prime tourist attractions of the state. The Rungdil Lake covers an area of 2.5 hectares. The lake is divided into two parts and surrounded by long stretches of forests.

All these lakes are blessed with breath taking natural landscapes. The sheer beauty of the lakes has made them so popular with the tourists. To know more about the lakes, click on the links below:


Tamdil is one of the few natural lakes of Mizoram. Located in the Aizwal district of the state, the Tamdil Lake lies at a distance of 110 kilometers from the capital city. The Saitual village is the closest locality, located at a distance of 7 kilometers from the lake. As per legendary beliefs, the Tamdil Lake was created when a huge mustard plant was brought down. Water sprinkled out of the stems of the plant and created the lake giving the name of Tamdil, which means a lake of mustard plant. The serene atmosphere of the Tamdil Lake of Mizoram goes in sync with the picturesque landscapes, blessed with imposing hills and green forests. Anglers have a gala time here and so do the campers. The tourists can enjoy boating in the waters of the Tamdil Lake. It has indeed emerged as one of the popular picnic and tourist spots in Mizoram.

Palak Lake

Palak Lake is one of the biggest natural lakes of Mizoram. The Palak Lake lies in the southern part of the state in the Lakher region. Located only 5 kilometers from the Pahu village, the Palak Lake of Mizoram falls in the Chhimtuipui district. The oval shaped lake has a width of 150 meters and a length of almost 200 meters. According to the local beliefs, the Palak Lake was created by a flood, which engulfed an entire village. Bordered by deciduous and tropical evergreen forests, the Palak Lake in Mizoram is one of the most beautiful lakes of the state. The Palak Lake is a paradise for bird watchers and fishing freaks. The serene ambiance, the crystal clear water and the presence of rich flora around the lake attract local and migratory birds. Various species of wild ducks and other aquatic birds are seen in abundance. No wonder it is one of the main tourism attractions of the state. The unpolluted water of the lake is the home to many rare species of fish, crabs and other creatures of the aqua kingdom. The forest area near Palak is full of animals like bear, dear, tiger and boar, making it a must visit place for the wild life buffs and nature lovers.


Rungdil is one of the most significant natural lakes of Mizoram. Located at a distance of 14 kilometers from Saungpuilawn Village, Aizwal, the Rungdil Lake is one of the tourist attractions in Mizoram. The Rungdil Lake has earned its name from the Rungdil birds. The lake was once the habitat of thousands of Rungdils - a species of partridges. The Rungdil Lake in Mizoram has a very interesting shape. The lake is actually divided into two parts by a single strip of land but with subterranean link. The Rungdil Lake of Mizoram covers an area of 2.5 hectares and is surrounded by vast stretches of deciduous and tropical evergreen forests. The place is a must visit for the nature lovers. The area also serves as a lovely picnic spot. The adjoining forest is infested with animals like bear, deer, tiger, wild boar etc. and can be a much admired destination for wildlife freaks. The crystal clear water of the lake is home to many known and unknown fish, making it an angler's paradise.

Mizoram Flora and Fauna

The lush green vegetations and forests infested with many type of animals signify the rich Mizoram Flora & Fauna. The excellent flora and fauna of Mizoram is a strong reason behind its popularity among the tourists.

The abundance of bamboo forests is one high point of Mizoram's flora. The hills of Mizoram have dense deciduous vegetations. The valleys and the mountain peaks are blessed with many known and unknown orchids. The ever admirable rhododendron is seen in abundance in these areas. The Blue Mountain is one such place where the Veitchiunum and Arboretum species of Rhododendron are found in plenty.

The presence of thick forests and good climate facilitated the fauna of Mizoram. The animal kingdom of Mizoram comprises of several rare and endangered species. Some of the animals found in the Mizoram forests, wild life sanctuaries and national parks are:

The forest areas and the lakes of Mizoram attract large number of migratory birds beside the local birds. Several species of Pheasants, Hawks, Eagles, Bulbuls, Herons and Egrets are sighted in Mizoram. Numerous species of butterflies, moths and many colorful insects are also found in these regions.