|*Map showing roads, railway lines, river, proposed metro lines, wards, sectors, tourist places, etc in Chandigarh.|
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Chandigarh is the first ever planned city in India. It was planned by the French architect Le Corbusier. The city tops the union territories of India and is significant as it has the highest per capita income as compared to other union territories of the country.
Being a well-planned city, it has been included in the list of world's renowned cities and for its quality of life. Chandigarh is a prestigious city as it is the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana. Today, it is recognized as a city of modern India.
You can say it is an example of modernisation brought together with nature preservation. A rare example lies in the trees and plants that are included in planning of its construction. The city is known to be cleanest in the country according to the reports. It permits only those industries to flourish that do not pollute the air. That is why you find the air of Chandigarh to be fresh and free of pollution. The city was constituted on 1 November 1966. Since its inception, it has been a significant city in the whole of North India. Due to the beautiful planning and architecture, you can see that tourism has also flourished and became an important tourist hub in North India.
|Facts on Chandigarh|
|Date of Formation (Declared a Union Territory)||Nov 1, 1966|
|Area||114 sq km|
|Total Population (2011)||1,054,686|
|Males Population (2011)||580663|
|Females Population (2011)||474787|
|No. of District||1|
|Forests & National Park||Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary|
|Languages||Hindi, Punjabi, English|
|State Animal||Indian Grey Mongoose|
|State Bird||Indian Grey Hornbill|
|State Flower||Dhak Flower|
|Neighbours State||Punjab, Haryana|
|Net State Domestic Product (2011)||128634|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||86.05%|
|Females per 1000 males||818|
History of Chandigarh
The history of the place dates back to 8000 years, when it was first inhabited by the Harappans, who are known to be among the earliest civilisations.
It was a prosperous place during medieval times and a part of the Punjab Province. After independence from British rule, Punjab was divided into West and East Punjab in 1947. After partition, the East Punjab did not have a capital as Lahore was given to Pakistan. Therefore, Chandigarh was planned in order to give Punjab a capital. So, at the foothills of the Shivalik, the location was sought out for Chandigarh. The city was built under the orders of prominent officers and the Prime Minister of India. But there were many hurdles before the actual city came up. A committee was set up to choose a good site for the city. The place was chosen after considering various aspects like climatic conditions, military vulnerability, water provision, etc.
After the formation of Haryana, both the states wanted a capital. So, Chandigarh, due to the proximity and the significance that it had achieved, became the capital of both the states.
Demography of Chandigarh
According to the 2011 census, Chandigarh population is 960,787 people. The density of population is 9252 persons per square kilometer. The sex ratio is 818 females per 1000 males. This states that it has one of the lowest sex ratios in the country. The literacy rate is 86.05%, which is quite high as compared to the rest of the country. Children comprise about 10% of the population.
The city is composed of people from various religions like Hindu, Sikh, Christians and Muslims. The Hindu population is the largest followed by Sikhism. Chandigarh is extremely progressive and has almost 90% of developed area. Most of the people live in urban areas, while only 2% live in villages.
The areas of concern are female literacy and female sex ratio. The government is taking measures to improve the condition of females here. In rural areas the female sex ratio is very unfortunate, which needs improvement.
Geography of Chandigarh
Chandigarh is located at the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas. It is around 321 meters above sea level. It is located at 30 degree 14 N latitude and 76 degree 14 E longitudes. It has fertile soil and produces crops in abundance. The land here comprises fertile alluvial soils, and on the surface you will find boulders, gravel, clays, silt, sand, pebbles and bricks.
The union territory comprises five towns and around 25 villages. There is also one Tehsil and community development blocks. The capital is subtropical in nature and is characterized by hot summers, unreliable rainfall and cool winters. The temperature varies in nature and can be experienced from -1 degree Celsius to 46 degree Celsius. Winters also bring frosts with them. It experiences sub-tropical continental monsoon climate. The annual rainfall is about 1100 mm. The entire city is drained by seasonal rivulets like the Sukhna Choe and the Patiali Rao.
Regarding the flora and fauna of the place, you can see a large number of water holes, and good plantations along with natural regeneration of various species and ideal habitat for wildlife. A variety of trees, herbs, shrubs, grasses and climbers can be found in Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary as well as mammals, birds and reptiles. Besides, you get to see migratory birds from Siberia and Japan.
Today a vast expansion of 3245 hectares has been converted under forest cover and is now a haven for wildlife. The place also has two national reserve forests and habitat for endangered species.
Economy of Chandigarh
As Chandigarh is recognised as the base of three different governments, it has become the major government employer in the region. Most of the population here works in government offices. The capital also has around 15 medium to large industries along with public sector enterprises. There are around 2500 units of small scale industries. It is an emerging outsourcing and IT services hub.
It has plenty of industries that manufacture paper, sanitary ware, machine tools, basic metals, auto parts, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. There are plenty of industries relating to food products as well. Due to the incredible infrastructure, Chandigarh today has many industries and factories. It has better connectivity and communication system. Although the city was not planned to be an industrial hub, it has become quite prominent in this sector. The tourism sector has also grown tremendously and is now very popular among the Indians as well as people overseas. Due to this, the income of the city has increased and contributed a lot to its total economy. It is also known to have the higher per capita income as compared to few other major cities of the country.
Government and Politics of Chandigarh
Chandigarh serves as a capital of Haryana and Punjab, which is why it is administered separately. It is recognised as a union territory of India. The head of its administration is the Governor who is also known as the Administrator and is appointed by the President of India. He is vested with most of the executive powers. The administration is under the home ministry of India.
The union territory has its own parliamentary constituency and covers the entire Chandigarh. It is the legislative assembly of Haryana and Punjab states as well.
Various bodies have been created to look after the different sectors of administration like education, social welfare, vigilance, environment, housing, animal husbandry, excise and taxation, health, food and supplier and urban planning.
Chandigarh is under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In the position on the Advisory, a senior officer belonging to the IAS service is the second in command. The officer belongs to the AGMU cadre of IAS. The Deputy Commissioner belongs to the IAS and controls the general administration of the union territory. The Senior Superintendent of Police or the IPS controls the law and order here.
There are various political parties in Chandigarh that look after the governance and politics of the city. The Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Aam Aadmi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party are some of the political parties.
Culture of Chandigarh
The union territory is known for its folk dances and music. The rituals and traditions carried out are mostly related to Punjabi culture and also to the Hindu, Sikh and Muslim culture. The local culture comprises rich food, festivals, music and dance, religious practice and rituals. The dances here depict the liveliness of the people here. Bhangra, gidda, julli, sammi, teeyan are some of the famous folk dances. Major festivals celebrated here by the locals are baisakhi, gurpurab, lohri, tika, raksha bandhan and many more. Festivals comprise a variety of food, sweet preparations and puja.
Its culture is quite modern and you can see people from various cultures as well. People from all over the country have settled in Chandigarh, so you can see a vast mixture of cultures and traditions.
People here speak Hindi or Punjabi or a combination of both. The city also has a cultural complex that showcases its art and culture. The traditional food here is typical Punjabi and very spicy too. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods are prepared here with great variety and taste.
The costumes here are similar to that of people in other parts of the states. However during festivals or important events, men love to wear sherwani and women wear lehenga choli or salwar kameez or saari.
Language of Chandigarh
Being a multicultural city, it has given rise to multilingual atmosphere. As it is also the capital of Haryana, Haryanvi is also spoken by most of the people here. Most of the people converse in both Hindi and English. People from different states have to converse in these two languages if they do not speak Punjabi. English is the language used in government offices. The official language of the city is Punjabi. The youth of Chandigarh speak a mix of Hindi and English.
Education in Chandigarh
Education in the union territory is of very high quality and in the form of informative and interesting methods that provide a wholesome approach to education. The universities of Chandigarh have provided quality education that has churned out students who are highly skilled and competent. The government has taken initiatives to provide the best education to every child in the city within one kilometer from the child's residence. You can find a large number of government schools as well as private schools here. Many privately managed schools have earned a grant-in-aid for those who are recognised as secular schools.
The education here comprises tertiary level and is looked after by the education department of Chandigarh. There are few government colleges here that are great in terms of infrastructure, campus, auditorium and sports. The colleges are affiliated to Punjab University. One can get education in various streams like commerce, arts and science. Computer science and business administration courses are also provided. The colleges here offer post graduation courses in many different subjects and also courses and education in instrumental music, public administration, etc.
Vocational education is also popular with colleges in Chandigarh. The courses are parallel to mainstream education. They come in sections like health, commerce, para-medicine and engineering.
Tourism of Chandigarh
Located at the foothills of the grand Shivalik range, the city has earned a good name as a tourist destination for its great planning, the clean environment, the grand structures and the magnificent gardens. It is an incredible city, with many sectors that are intertwined by a great network of roads. Therefore, roaming around is not a problem at all. Today, it takes a prominent place as a tourist destination of India. Nature lovers will love the gardens and the reservoir in the city.
Some of the attractions here are very popular among tourists. A few of them are:
- The Rock Garden
- Sukhna Lake
- Rose Garden
- Government Museum and Art gallery
- International Dolls Museum
- Japanese Garden
- Musical Fountain
- Butterfly Park
- Botanical Garden
Best Time to Visit Chandigarh
If you want to experience Chandigarh's pleasant weather, visit the city between August to November.
Transport of Chandigarh
Chandigarh is well-connected to other states and cities by road, rail and air. The public bus services are managed by the Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) and are operated from the Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sector 17 and 43. Inter state buses to the neighbouring states such as Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh are also operated by the CTU in the city. By road, it is also well connected by NH 22 and NH 21. The Chandigarh Railway Station is connected to many major cities in India. In the Indian Railways network, it falls under the Northern Railway zone. There are direct flights from Chandigarh Airport to cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and many others. The Chandigarh Metro Rail is also proposed in the city which will be operational soon in few years.