Government and politics has been instrumental in the socio-economic situation of Bihar. Bihar had been the seat of many prosperous kingdoms but, due to the incompetence of the Bihar government and politics, it is lagging behind in present time.
The level of poverty and per capita income in the state is among the worst in the country. Bihar government and politics has been largely instrumental in this socio-economic degeneration.
The decline of Bihar started with the foreign invasion in the Middle Ages when Bihar was being torn apart with the external invasions and internal agitation. This period ended with India, and precisely, passing under the domain of the British.
British followed an expansionist policy. They never bothered about the standard of living of the common people. In fact, it was the duty of the local rulers to keep a watch on the well-being of the common people. But, as a matter of fact, they turned out to be selfish. Therefore, the condition of Bihar government and politics deteriorated even further.
Even today, the condition of Bihar government and politics has not improved. It is, indeed, very unfortunate that Bihar, in spite of being a great deposit of mineral resources is still lying in the dungeon of poverty.
It was Bihar, where Gandhi had launched his first struggle of independence. But, if we look at the socio-economic or socio-politico condition of Bihar, it still is in that nascent state.
Furthermore, government and politics of a state determines the future of a place; therefore, it can be said that Bihar government and politics has chalked out this weak image of Bihar.
There are two major Bihar Commissions. These are Bihar Public Service Commission and Bihar State Election Commission. Both these Bihar Commissions carry out very important functions of the state of Bihar. Some important information about these two major Bihar Commissions is given below.
Bihar Commissions: The Bihar Public Service Commission is one of the two major Bihar Commissions, which carries out the following duties:
State Election Commission: The Constitution of India has given Bihar State Election Commission the direction, superintendence and control of the preparation of Electoral rolls and process of conduct of elections by Rural and Urban Local Bodies.
Electronic Voting Machines, known as EVMs are used for polling in Municipal election at each polling station. Sufficient training has been imparted to all the polling personnel and Observers for proper handling of these machines. If the electors face any problem in recording their vote through EVMs, then they are advised to contact their respective polling officers without hesitation.
Bihar Government has been playing a very significant role over years in the overall development of the state of Bihar. The government of Bihar has been divided into several departments for efficient execution of work.
The Chief Minister in Bihar Government is Nitish Kumar. He was sworn in as Bihar's 22nd chief minister on 22 February 2015.
The major departments and institutions in Bihar Government are:
Presently the state of Bihar comprises of two chief political formations: National Democratic Alliance, which includes Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal and Bharatiya Janata Party. There are numerous other Bihar Political Parties like Lok Janshakti Party, Bihar People's Party and many more.
The national parties have played a significant role in starting Indian independence. These national parties originating from Bihar have proved their presence in the pre-Independence revolt of 1857 to the Quit India Movement of 1942.
Throughout these 60 years of post Independence of India, the national parties in Bihar have been making their root more stronger day by day. They have transformed the state of Bihar to the most technically sound and advanced place of the country. The main national party of Bihar, who has got a remarkable contribution in the transformation of the state, is:
The NDA: The NDA (National Democratic Alliance) of India is a government spinning around the coalition brought forward by the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Janata Dal. The Janata Dal is an expert flock of the Janata Party. The Lok Dal, together with another group of Congressmen was guided by V P Singh. The year 1989 observed the achievement of the desirable acknowledgment of being an authority to be deemed with. Bharatiya Janata Party, the other division of the NDA was formed in 1980. This party was fortunate enough to be led by eminent leaders like Atal Behari Bajpayee, Lal Krishna Advani, and Narendra Modi at present.
The State Parties in Bihar comprises of some major political parties leading the Bihar Political Parties. The three political parties without which there cannot be any State Parties in Bihar are:
Janata Dal (United): The Janata Dal (United) is the first and foremost political party of the state of Bihar. This state level political party has been predominant in the state of Bihar as well as Karnataka. This party was formed as a result of the combination of the Samata Party and the earlier Janata Dal (United) on 30 October 2003. The union of these two parties opposes the Rashtriya Janata Dal, one of the prominent State Parties in Bihar.
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha: Jharkhand Mukti Morcha is one of the important state level political parties of Bihar. Led by Shibu Soren, the President of the party, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha party is quite influential in the state.
Rashtriya Janata Dal: The Rashtriya Janata Dal came into existence in the year 1997, when Laloo Prasad Yadav left his earlier party Janata Dal. This party in coalition with the Indian National Congress is under the leadership of the famous politician, Laloo Prasad Yadav. During his leadership, the party dominated the whole political domain of Bihar. Laloo Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabri Devi even governed the political affairs as the Chief Minister of Bihar. Rashtriya Janata Dal was acknowledged as a nationalised party of Bihar, in the year 2008 for its remarkable work in north-eastern India. Though, it was declared as one of the state level Bihar Political Parties on 30 July 2010.
To name a few other political parties active in Bihar are:
Ministries in Bihar Legislative Assembly are one of the largest in India. The number of ministries has been toned down from what it used to be in the times of the previous RJD government. The present ministries of Bihar amount to 28. It includes the new Health and Family Welfare joining the previous departments. A legislation was brought in the Union cabinet to cut down on the size of the ministries at Bihar for a smooth and more efficient running of the government departments. Every party welcomed the move and it was accepted. The move was to cut down on the existing size of the ministries by a margin of 15%.
A total number of 15 cabinet ministers and ten ministers of state look after the departments. A smooth running of all the departments is integral for a smooth running of the state's administrative policy. Headed by the Bihar Legislative Council and the Bihar Legislative Assembly, the departments are devoted for the all round development of the state. The Governor's Secretariat and the Dy. Chief Minister's office are responsible for the executive. A smooth coordination is expected between the Bihar ministries to take the state out of the law and problems that the state lately felt and also to improve the civil and financial infrastructures of the state.
A list of the ministries of Bihar is provided below:
Secretariat departments of Bihar work under Bihar ministries for an effective running of the state's governance. The various departments are particularly focused towards an all over development of Bihar. All secretariat departments in Bihar are ultimately under the supervision of a minister and directly function under a secretary and a deputy secretary responsible for the smooth operation of the department.
The directorates and the regional levels of the departments function under the secretariat departments. The Bihar secretariat departments not only cover every important aspect of the civic life of the inhabitants of the state successfully, but also provide important guidelines and directions for the government to plan and systematize their activities.
The Bihar state legislature consists of 15 cabinet ministers and 10 ministers of state. Many ministers are in charge of more than one department among the 26 secretariat departments of the state. Bihar's secretariat departments coordinate the operations of the state legislature and the executive, as well as act efficiently to finally put into practice the laws laid down by the legislature.
A list of the secretariat departments of Bihar are provided below: